Hiraal Institute’s vision is to be the premier security research and analysis organisation that develops solutions to Horn of Africa’s security challenges to help make the region and the world more secure Read More


Security Incidents in the Third Quarter of 2018

Summary Faced by an increasingly lethal air campaign by Somalia's allies, Al-Shabab (AS) was forced to change its tactics. In the third quarter of 2018, the aggregate tempo of AS attacks slightly slowed down compared to the second quarter of the year. It was forced to...

The Islamic State in East Africa

Summary The slogan of the Islamic State is remaining and expanding (baqiya watatamadad), and at the end of July 2018, the Islamic State in East Africa could claim to be doing both; not in any dramatic way, but sufficiently to be taken seriously by other violent...

The AS Finance System

Summary This paper discusses Al-Shabab's (AS) financial system and estimates the amount collected by the group, based on figures provided to Hiraal by former AS finance and Zakawaat officials. With the rise of Islamic State in Somalia, AS is not the only terrorist...

Taming the Clans: Al-Shabab’s Clan Politics

The Al-Shabab (AS) leadership was initially interested in forging an egalitarian organisation that would transform Somali society by sidelining traditional clan leaders. However, the group quickly realised that clan loyalty ran deep; rather than reforming clan...

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