AL-Shabab’s Military Machine

Al-Shabab’s conventional military wing is known as the Jabahaat (‘fronts’ in Arabic; singular Jabha). Its first iteration was formed in 2005 when the group sent a group of 15 men into the Somali region of Ethiopia. At its height in 2010, the Jabahaat...

Security Incidents in the Third Quarter of 2018

Summary Faced by an increasingly lethal air campaign by Somalia’s allies, Al-Shabab (AS) was forced to change its tactics. In the third quarter of 2018, the aggregate tempo of AS attacks slightly slowed down compared to the second quarter of the year. It was...

The Islamic State in East Africa

Summary The slogan of the Islamic State is remaining and expanding (baqiya watatamadad), and at the end of July 2018, the Islamic State in East Africa could claim to be doing both; not in any dramatic way, but sufficiently to be taken seriously by other violent...

The AS Finance System

Summary This paper discusses Al-Shabab’s (AS) financial system and estimates the amount collected by the group, based on figures provided to Hiraal by former AS finance and Zakawaat officials. With the rise of Islamic State in Somalia, AS is not the only...